Function of bone cells

Osteoclasts, multinucleated giant cells with ruffled borders and clear zones, are responsible for bone resorption, although probably they are controlled by surrounding osteoblast phenotype. Active osteoclasts secrete H+ and proteolytic enzyme such as cathepsin and ACPase towards resorption pits through ruffled borders Bone cells work in harmony to maintain a balance between bone formation and resorption, ultimately to control bone structure and function. Osteoblasts are cells, which contribute to deposition of.. Functions of Bone Cells Osteoblasts. Osteoblasts are cuboidal cells arranged in a densely packed layer along the bone surface. They account for... Osteocytes. The majority of bone cells are osteocytes, which are essentially osteoblasts that have become surrounded and... Osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs): BMPs are produced in the bone or bone marrow. They bind to BMP receptors that are on mesenchymal stem cells within the bone marrow. This causes the cells to produce Cbfa 1, which is a factor that activates the DNA so proteins can be made -- a process known as gene transcription 38.2B: Cell Types in Bones. The osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte, and osteoprogenitor bone cells are responsible for the growing, shaping, and maintenance of bones. Bone consists of four types of cells: osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes, and osteoprogenitor (or osteogenic) cells

Bone lining cells functions are not completely understood, but it has been shown that these cells prevent the direct interaction between osteoclasts and bone matrix, when bone resorption should not occur, and also participate in osteoclast differentiation, producing osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) [14, 53] Osteogenic cells are bone cells capable of creating new osteoblasts and osteoclasts. They are located in the periosteum, which is the tissue surrounding the bone, and the bone marrow. An injury such as a fracture triggers cell production by the osteogenic cells, creating new osteoblasts and osteocytes to repair the damage as quickly as possible This cell is associated with the process of growth and remodelling of bone. So its function is to resorb or destroy bone. Biology, Human, Bones, Bone Cells, Bone Cells in Human Body. Structure of Fungi (With Diagram) | Hindi | Microorganisms | Biology. Structural Features of Epithelial Cells (With Diagram) | Biology They line the surface of the bone. These old osteoblasts are also called LINING CELLS. They regulate passage of calcium into and out of the bone, and they respond to hormones by making special proteins that activate the osteoclasts. OSTEOCYTES are cells inside the bone

Your bones provide many essential functions for your body such as producing new blood cells, protecting your internal organs, allowing you to move, and providing a framework for your body The bone cells perform diverse functions inside the human body. Some of the main functions of the bone cells are listed below: Osteoclasts are involved in the maintenance of the ruffled borders in the bones. Formation of bone marrow occurs with the help of osteoclasts

Bone cells form a functional syncytium in which gap junction channels allow the direct intercellular communication of small molecules between cells. All bone cells express gap junction proteins, most abundantly connexin43. Connexin43 serves several functions in the bone, most of which is known in the osteoblast lineage Bones have many functions. They support the body structurally, protect our vital organs, and allow us to move. Also, they provide an environment for bone marrow, where the blood cells are created,.. Bone marrow, a component of the lymphatic system, is the soft and flexible tissue in the cavities of bone. In the body, the major function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. Bone marrow also helps to remove old cells from the circulation. Bone marrow has both a vascular component and a non-vascular component

Immunology: Primary and Secondary lymphoid Tissue - YouTube

organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review, we discuss the current data about the structure and functions of bone cells and the factors that in uence bone remodeling. 1. Introduction Bone is a mineralized connective tissue that exhibits four types of cells: osteoblasts, bone lining cells, osteocytes, and osteoclasts [ , ] The bone microenvironment plays an important role in osteoclast formation and function and is dependent upon local signals from other cells and growth factors sequestrated in the bone matrix. Osteoclasts express the enzyme tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), calcitonin receptors, vacuolar proton ATPase and vitronectin receptors ( 24 ) Bone cells work in harmony to maintain a balance between bone formation and resorption, ultimately to control bone structure and function. Osteoblasts are cells, which contribute to deposition of organic components of bone extracellular matrix. How does bone cells look like A. Reed Osteoclasts are cells that break down old bone cells to make way for osteoblasts to stimulate new bone growth. The chief function of osteoblasts is the formation of bone. Bone formation begins within cartilage and connective tissue membranes during the third prenatal month, ending sometime between late adolescence and early adulthood

[Structure and function of bone cells

PLAY. functions of skeletal system. support, protection, movement, mineral storage and release, hemopoesis (blood cell formation), triglyceride storage. triglyceride storage. yellow marrow; mainly adipose cells that store potential engergy reserves. osteogenic cells. unspecialized bone stem cells. only bone cell that divides Results: Statins increase the expression of many mediators involved in bone metabolism including bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), glucocorticoids, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen and collagenase-1. As a result, they enhance bone formation and improve bone mineral density by modulating osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation Bone cells are the cells that make up bone tissue. Bone is a highly specialized connective tissue with three main functions; to protect the internal organs, to create a rigid frame for muscular movement, and to store minerals such as calcium and phosphorous. What is the major cell type of a tendon Blood-cell formation; Triglyceride storage. Support and movement. Bones are a site of attachment for ligaments and tendons, providing a skeletal framework that can produce movement through the coordinated use of levers, muscles, tendons and ligaments. The bones act as levers, while the muscles generate the forces responsible for moving the bones

Bone Lining Cells. Bone lining cells, much as their name suggests, are found lining the surface of bone. Unlike osteoblasts on the bone surface, bone lining cells have a long, slender, and flat morphology. Bone lining cells were initially considered to be preosteoblasts (Bilezikian et al., 2002); however, this is no longer thought to be the case At the cellular level, the main functional component of bone marrow includes the progenitor cells which are destined to mature into blood and lymphoid cells. Human marrow produces approximately 500 billion blood cells per day. [10

Structure: Tiny, irregular shaped cells with a diameter of 2-3 µm. Abundance: Present in less than 1% of the total blood cell count.Platelets are about 1/10th to 1/20th as abundant as white blood cells. Composition: Lacks nucleus and contains dense granules in the cytoplasm. Lifespan: 5 to 9 days Functions: Helping in blood clotting, the process of preventing hemorrhage in a damaged blood. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs): BMPs are produced in the bone or bone marrow. They bind to BMP receptors that are on mesenchymal stem cells within the bone marrow. This causes the cells to produce Cbfa 1, which is a factor that activates the DNA so proteins can be made -- a process known as gene transcription Although bone cells compose a small amount of the bone volume, they are crucial to the function of bones. Four types of cells are found within bone tissue: osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteogenic cells, and osteoclasts (Figure \(\PageIndex{5}\)). Figure \(\PageIndex{5}\): Bone Cells.Four types of cells are found within bone tissue Moreover, bone stores crucial nutrients, minerals, and lipids and produces blood cells that nourish the body and play a vital role in protecting the body against infection. All these functions make the approximately 206 bones of the human body an organ that is essential to our daily existence Yellow bone marrow contains adipose tissue, and the triglycerides stored in the adipocytes of this tissue can be released to serve as a source of energy for other tissues of the body. Red bone marrow is where the production of blood cells (named hematopoiesis, hemato- = blood, -poiesis = to make) takes place. Red blood cells, white.

(PDF) Bone Cell Function: A Review - ResearchGat

The bone is the site of where the bone marrow is located. The bone marrow is important for production of red blood cells and white blood cells It is in the shape of a ring and make up about 80% of all the bones in the body. Spongy bone= Cancellous bone This is normally located in the ends of the long bones and found in the medullary cavity Osteoblasts (bottom image on the right) are produced by bone cells and are the bone builders. They are responsible for the synthesis and mineralization of bone during both the initial bone formation process and later bone remodeling process. Osteoblasts form a closely packed sheet on the surface of the bone, from which cellular processes extend through the developing bone Lining cells are very flat bone cells. These cover the outside surface of all bones and are also formed from osteoblasts that have finished creating bone material. These cells play an important role in controlling the movement of molecules in and out of the bone. Osteoclasts break down and reabsorb existing bone. The second part of the word. The bone cells' coordinated actions determine the shape and form of body. This post is used to express the cell types in bones. There are four types of cells in bone—osteocytes, osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteoprogenitor cells. However, in different locations in bones, these cell types have different functions In remodeling, bone cells known as osteoclasts first resorb or eat away a section of bone in a tunnel called a cutting cone. Following the osteoclasts are bone cells known as osteoblasts which then form bone to fill up the tunnel. The osteoblasts fill up the tunnel in staggered amounts creating lamellae which exist at the 2 nd level of structure

The ribs form a cage that surrounds and protects the lungs and heart. In addition to aiding in movement, protecting organs, and providing structural support, red and white blood cells and platelets are synthesized in bone marrow. Another vital function of bones is that they act as a storage depot for minerals such as calcium, phosphorous, and. Bone tissue is one of the main components of the skeletal system (other components include bone marrow/marrow cavity, collagen fibers etc). Like other tissues in the body, bones are made up of specialized cells that serve different functions. The three main types of cells that make up bone tissue include: Osteoblasts - are the type of cells. blood cell formation. function in bone growth and repair. When a bone is bruised or fractured, most of the pain results from injury to the periosteum. Spongy boneis a latticework of thin struts of bone with open areas between. This internal network braces the bone from within

bone) osteoclast - Cells that remove bone (bone resorption) by enzymatically eroding the bone matrix. These cells are monocyte-macrophage in origin and fuse to form a multinucleated osteoclast. These cells allow continuous bone remodelling and are also involved in calcium and phosphate metabolism Function: whenever there is an initiated bone formation (e.g. during growth or healing of bone fractures) the osteoprogenitor cells proliferate by mitosis and differentiate into osteoblasts. Osteoblasts. They arise from osteoprogenitor cells. They present in the same sites as osteoprogenitor cells Bone Marrow Structure and Function. The bone marrow is found within the central cavities of axial and long bones ( Figure 1 ). It consists of hematopoietic tissue islands and adipose cells surrounded by vascular sinuses interspersed within a meshwork of trabecular bone A _____ bone or cartilage can be repaired by the bone-forming cells called osteoblasts. Bone tissues require an adequate amount of __________ to perform their function

Yellow bone marrow is involved in the storage of fats. The fats in yellow bone marrow are stored in cells called adipocytes. This fat can be used as an energy source as needed Proteins secreted from bone cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts) regulate the formation of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and new blood vessels in a paracrine (local hormonal action) manner. Hematopoiesis is the process in which these bone marrow stem cells give rise to all of the critical cells of the blood. Without enough white blood cells (leukocytes), the immune system cannot protect the body properly. The synthesis of blood cells is an often overlooked but vital function of the bones of the skeleton He was also concerned at separating thymus-derived from marrow- derived cells because the former are in fact marrow-derived cells (50) despite the fact that, as stated above, bone marrow was known to be a source of stem cells for both the myeloid and lymphoid systems (22) Thus, what is the function of the bone matrix? Bone matrix constitutes a complex and organized framework that provides mechanical support and exerts essential role in the bone homeostasis. The bone matrix can release several molecules that interfere in the bone cells activity and, consequently, has a participation in the bone remodeling [117]

Bone Cells Biology Dictionar

  1. A typical bone in your body contains 3 types of tissue - a hard outer tissue, a sponge-like inner tissue, and smooth tissue at the ends
  2. Osteocytes are the most abundant bone cell type, accounting for 95% of all bone cells. These cells are osteoblasts that have been spared apoptosis at the end of a bone formation cycle and have become incorporated into the bone matrix (see Poster panel Osteoblast lineage), where they can have a lifespan of decades
  3. erals, provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility.Bones come in a variety of shapes and sizes and have a complex internal and external structure
  4. eral structure, bones consist of four distinct kinds of cells: osteoblasts for
  5. eralization of bones. Osteoclasts are the cells that are involved in the breakdown and resorption of bones. Therefore, the main difference between osteoblast and osteoclast is the function of each type of bone cell in bone remodeling. Reference: 1.Cell Types in.
  6. erals like calcium and phosphate. 4. storage of lipids (yellow marrow) 5. production of blood cells (red marrow) Epiphyses. Expanded portions at each end of long bone, articulates with adjacent bone at joint. Compact Bone
  7. The compact bone is the main structure in the body for support, protection, and movement. Due to the strong nature of compact bone, compared to spongy bone, it is the preferred tissue for strength. Spongy bone is used for more active functions of the bones, including blood cell production and ion exchange

Bone Cells - University of Washingto

38.2B: Cell Types in Bones - Biology LibreText

Bone marrow and thymus are the primary part of our immune system. To the immune system, bone marrow function in immune system is vital because all the blood cells of the body such as T-Cells B-Cells NK Cells are made within the bone marrow. Till maturation, B-cells (B-lymphocytes) remain in the bone marrow while T-cells (T-lymphocytes) travel. Introduction. Osteoblasts (OBs), the chief bone-making cells, are replenished throughout life in mammals, but their origin in postnatal life remains to be fully elucidated ().Lineage-tracing experiments have identified the Gli1-positive metaphyseal mesenchymal progenitors (MMPs) as a major source for trabecular osteoblasts in the long bones of mice up to four months of age (Shi et al., 2017)

There are four types of bone cells in the body; osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes, and lining cells. Osteoclasts are large multinucleated cells that are involved in bone resorption. Osteoblasts have the opposite function, they are involved in the generation of new bone. Osteocytes can sense mechanical strain being placed on the bone, and. Bone marrow-derived stromal cells and regulatory T cells also direct M2 cell polarization mainly through IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase) and IL-10. AAM are highly phagocytic and exert their anti-inflammatory and tissue reshaping functions via specific cytokines (such as IL10) and other factors that endorse tissue re-vascularization [ 34 ] This tissue is known as bone marrow and is responsible for the production of blood cells - a process known as hematopoiesis. This article will review the embryology of the bone marrow as well as its histology. Additionally, the constituent cell lineages and their function will be discussed, together with clinically relevant processes and.

Osteoblast - wikidoc

Extending these cell-based assays, the analysis of cell-specific loss- and gain-of-function mouse models of osteocalcin function, as well as the treatment of Leydig cells with osteocalcin, show that uncarboxylated osteocalcin signals directly to Leydig cells to favor the expression of all genes encoding the enzymes necessary for testosterone. bone also served as a hematopoietic niche and for calcium homeostasis. Nevertheless, recent breakthroughs in bone science have shown that the skeleton also have true endocrine roles [1-3]. This was demonstrated by the presence of novel hormones pro-duced by bone cells that control mineral ion homeostasis and energy balance The function of periosteum cells is to develop into new cells as a bone grows but it does not have the ability to replicate indefinitely. Eventually progenitor cells change into osteoblasts which aid in the formation of new bone growth 1. Schwann cells. Surround the axons of peripheral nerves. Function: They form myelin sheath around the axons around the nerve fibers of peripheral nervous system. 2. Satellite (capsular) cells. They surround the cell bodies of neurons in the autonomic and sensory ganglia. Function: They provide structural support to the neurons in the ganglia The lining cells protect the bone while the osteoblasts keep the bones together. The osteoblasts help in the growth and development of bones. However, osteoclasts are responsible for destroying bones. Lining cells These types of bone cells are usually flat and can easily protect the bone without any obstructions to other cell functions in the body

What are the four types of bone cells and their functions

4. Name the 4 types of bone cells. Function of each. 5. What is the order of the development of bone cells (osteogenic cells, osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts)? 6. Describe lacuna, interstitial lamellae, outer circumferential lamellae, concentric lamellae, canaliculi, Sharpey's fibers, osteon, Haversian canal. Function of each What Is the Function of the Canaliculi? The canaliculi are small channels that link together the lacunae as well as having a function of routing nutrients to osteocytes and expelling waste products. Lacunae are minute spaces that contain bone cells, otherwise known as the osteocytes. Canaliculi are found in both compact and spongy bone Our bones also act as a site for the production of blood cells and a store of minerals, particularly calcium. Functions of the Skeletal System: The skeletal system is the body system composed of bones and cartilage and performs the following critical functions for the human body: supports the body; facilitates movement; protects internal organ Around 5% to 12% of white blood cells in your bloodstream are monocytes, but their most important function is to migrate into tissues and clean up dead cells (among other functions.) Formation White blood cells begin in the bone marrow in a process called hematopoiesis

What are Bone Cells? (with pictures) - Info Bloo

Renal osteodystrophy or renal bone disease is one of the most common and potentially debilitating complications affecting patients with chronic renal insufficiency both before and after the initiation of maintenance dialysis. The term is used to describe the wide spectrum of skeletal abnormalities encountered in the setting of impaired renal function, which range from states of high to low. Cells that are involved in growing bone: Osteoprogenitor cells are the 'stem' cells of bone, and are the source of new osteoblasts.. Osteoblasts, lining the surface of bone, secrete collagen and the organic matrix of bone (osteoid), which becomes calcified soon after it has been deposited.As they become trapped in the organic matrix, they become osteocytes Several acid-sensing ion channels are also expressed by bone cells , although their function remains to be defined. The P2X 2 receptor for extracellular ATP is also acid-activated and is expressed by osteoclasts but probably does not play an important role in the activation of resorption . Recent work suggests, however, that the acid-activated.

Bone Cells: 3 Main Types of Bone Cells (With Diagram

  1. g cell, osteoclasts resorb or break down bone, and osteocytes are mature bone cells
  2. This video is going through the types of cells in bone, talking about osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells, etc. In a similar way, blood cells differentiate from a stem cell named a hemocytoblast. When you think about it, hemocytoblast s and osteoprogenitor cells were differentiated from mesenchymal cells, the stem cells of connective tissue
  3. Hematopoietic Stem Cells: In living organisms, a specialized system that consist of blood and its progenitors are referred to as the hematopoietic system.. In particular, this system is made up of cells with specialized functions such as the red blood cells (for carrying oxygen to tissues), white blood cells (for immune defense against pathogens, and foreign agents), platelets (for blood.
  4. g unit assays, unfractionated bone marrow cells (10,000 cells per 1 ml in a 3-cm dish) or sorted HSCs (100 cells per 1 ml in a 3-cm dish, or 1 cell in 100 μl per well of a 96.
  5. Although bone cells compose less than 2% of the bone mass, they are crucial to the function of bones. Four types of cells are found within bone tissue: osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteogenic cells, and osteoclasts (Figure 6.3.5). Figure 6.3.5 - Bone Cells: Four types of cells are found within bone tissue. Osteogenic cells are undifferentiated.
  6. ant in the development of osteoporosis (OP). Recent researches have proved that autophagy plays an important role in maintenance of skeletal phenotype. However, whether autophagy affects the development of OP through regulating the function of BMMSCs remains elusive

Bone Function: What Your Bones Do and Why They're Essentia

  1. Hematopoietic stem cell function. When hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are infused into a patient whose blood formation has been destroyed (as a result of high-dose chemotherapy, for example), they are able to populate the recipient's bone marrow with their descendants and increase the number of blood cells, thereby restoring blood formation
  2. erals, protect organs, and enable us to move by providing an attachment site for muscles. Many of our bones contain cavities filled with a material called marrow, which makes vital cells for our body. Stem cells are an important component of bone marrow
  3. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can alleviate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the mechanisms involved are unclear, especially about their specific effects on cellular mitochondrial respiratory function. Thirty mice were allocated into the Control, LPS, and LPS + Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) group (n = 10/group). Mouse alveolar epithelial cells (MLE-12) and macrophage.

Types of Bone Cells Osteoclasts, Osteoblasts, & Osteocyte

  1. Bone Cells. There are four main subtypes of bone cells, as shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\). Each type has a different form and function: Osteocytes are star-shaped bone cells that make up the majority of bone tissue. They are the most common cells in mature bone and can live as long as the organism itself
  2. Bone cells, which are found within the bone tissue, are responsible for the make-up of the skeleton of vertebrates. Types of bone cell include osteoclasts, which break down bone tissue; osteoblasts, which build new bone tissue; osteocytes, which hold the bone together; and lining cells, which protect the bone. Blood is a specialized body fluid
  3. bone marrow takes over most haematopoi - etic functions so that, at birth, the whole skeleton is filled with red bone marrow. Red bone marrow produces all erythro-cytes, leucocytes and platelets. Haemat-opoietic stem cells in the bone marrow follow either the myeloid or lymphoid lin-eages to create distinct blood cells (Fig 2); these include.
  4. Related WordsSynonymsLegend: Switch to new thesaurus Noun 1. bone cell - a cell that is part of a bone bone, os - rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates somatic cell, vegetative cell - any of the cells of a plant or animal except the reproductive cells; a cell that does not participate in the production of gametes; somatic cells are produced from preexisting cells.
  5. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, fat, nerve, and other tissues. They can be extracted and separated from the autologous bone marrow of patients. As one of the ideal bone tissue engineering seed cells, they have been widely used in the construction of tissue engineering bone [9-11]
  6. The primary function of the bone marrow is to manufacture blood cells—red cells, white cells, and platelets. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, whereas white cells help to fight infections and platelets are necessary for blood to clot
Essential Human Biology : Cells & Tissues : Connective TissueThymus Development - Embryologyparietal cells - HumpathAn Unexpected New Lung Function Has Been Found - They Make

Bone Cell - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

  1. Bone is a tissue in which the extracellular matrix has been hardened to accommodate a supporting function. The fundamental components of bone, like all connective tissues, are cells and matrix. There are three key cells of bone tissue: osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. They each have unique functions and are derived from two different.
  2. eral when the lungs and kidneys are unable to remove sufficient.
  3. Although bone cells compose a small amount of the bone volume, they are crucial to the function of bones. Four types of cells are found within bone tissue: osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteogenic cells, and osteoclasts (Figure 6.9)
  4. Bone is highly vascularised, and its calcified matrix makes it very strong. This topic covers the structure and function of bone and cartilage, the type of cells found in these tissues, and how bone and cartilage are formed. Objectives. By the time you have completed this topic you should know
  5. In addition, differences in the function of T cells from the bone marrow and blood have been reported and may contribute to some of the differences observed in our results . A study using a defined 10:1 blast/T cell ratio and stimulation with both anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 also found impaired T cell proliferation when compared to T cells from.
  6. Four types of cells are found within bone tissue. Osteogenic cells are undifferentiated and develop into osteoblasts. When osteoblasts get trapped within the calcified matrix, their structure and function changes, and they become osteocytes. Osteoclasts develop from monocytes and macrophages and differ in appearance from other bone cells

The hematopoietic function of bone tissues was demonstrated by its support for a higher percentage of mixed chimerism compared with i.v. injection and donor hematopoietic cell mobilization in the circulation of nonirradiated recipients. Furthermore, hematopoietic cells sorted from the engineered bone tissues reconstituted the hematopoietic. Cells in the human body are of different types based on their structure and function.. Scientifically, a Cell is the basic unit of life. A group of cells from a tissue and a group of tissues form an organ.. A group of organs makes up an organ system, and a group of organ systems makes up the human body.. So, if an organ is damaged, the cells and cell structure in the organ are also damaged function in bone and muscle progenitor cells to influence musculoskeletal health. Our results may also be relevant to metabolic disorders, given that mitochondrial dysfunction and TNAP are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome [25,26]. 2. Result Ordinarily these are the same, but in some circumstances nonvascular cells may perform a circulatory function, referred to as vasculogenic mimicry. 17 Like neoangiogenesis, this process is usually thought of in connection with the survival of neoplastic cells, but neoangiogenesis is an essential component of normal cortical bone remodeling, 18. Bone is a specialised type of connective tissue. It has a unique histological appearance, which enables it to carry out its numerous functions: Haematopoiesis - the formation of blood cells from haematopoietic stem cells found in the bone marrow.; Lipid and mineral storage - bone is a reservoir holding adipose tissue within the bone marrow and calcium within the hydroxyapatite crystals